Cancer is an abnormal growth of cells.
Our body is made up of trillions of living cells. Normal body cells grow, divide to make new cells (when needed), and die in an orderly manner.In cancer, this orderly process goes wrong and cells begin to grow and multiply uncontrollably.Cancer cells can grow out of control and attack other tissues, thus spreading to other organs. Changes in the DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) of the cells can lead to formation of cancer cells. In a normal cell, when DNA is damaged the cell either repairs the damage or dies. In a cancer cell, the damaged DNA is not repaired, and the cell goes on generating new cells that the body doesn’t need. These new cells contain the same damaged DNA as the first cell.
There are various ways that a person’s DNA gets damaged – genetic factors (inherited from one’s parents); lifestyle factors such as tobacco use, diet, and physical activity; certain types of infections; and environmental exposures to different types of chemicals and radiation.
There are more than 100 types of cancer, including breast cancer, skin cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer, and lymphoma. Symptoms vary depending on the type. Cancer treatment may include chemotherapy, radiation, and/or surgery.Untreated cancers can cause serious illness and death.
The medical oncology team provides treatment with chemotherapy, biological therapy, immunotherapy and hormonal therapy for various cancers. These not only have a very important role to play in curing early stage cancers, but also are important in advanced cancers for improving the duration of survival with a good quality of life.
Systemic therapy in the form of Cytotoxic (anti-cancer drugs)forms an important sub-division of the cancer treatment. In the recent years, It has enabled cure to many childhood solid tumors, testicular andovarian cancers, breast cancer, colon cancer and hitherto, fatal bone tumors. Chemotherapy is the only modality used to cure haematologic malignanciessuch as Leukemia, Lymphomas.
In the recent years, there are many new targeted therapies that have improved results in the treatment of cancers. These new medicinesare called Biological Therapies that act predominantly on cancer cells and have minimal side effects. They have significantly improved cure and survival inpatients of lymphomas, breast cancer, colon and rectal cancers and head andneck tumors.
Manipal Hospital is one of the few centers in India that provides ClinicalHaematology services including Anaemia, Bone Marrow Failure, Clotting and Bleeding Disorders likeThrombocytopenia including ITP, Haemophilia other coagulation disorders and Arterial and Venous Thrombosis. It also deals with malignant diseases (BloodCancers) like Leukemia, Lymphoma and Multiple Myeloma.
Bone Marrow and Stem Cell Transplant
Bone Marrow Transplant at Manipal Comprehensive Cancer Center facilitates autologous and allogenic Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT). Application of Bone Marrow Transplant is in wide variety of diseases, which include malignant diseases like Leukemia (both acute and chronic), Multiple Myeloma, Myelodysplastic Syndrome, Lymphomas, Neuroblastoma and other solid tumors as well as in nonmalignant diseases like Thalassemia, Aplastic Anaemia, Immunodeficiencies,Inborn errors of metabolism and Autoimmune disorders.
The transplant team includes experienced Medical Oncologists and Clinical Haematologists. Thehospital has a tie-up with University of Minnesota Physicians for the BMT program,which helps in maintaining the highest standards of clinical practice. BMT program has been active since 2004 with high success rate. There are dedicated HEPA filtered rooms for BMT with a team of trained nurses for round the clock care.
Comprehensive Cancer Center’s Radiation Oncology wing consists ofa highly qualified and experienced team of Radiation Oncologists, MedicalPhysicists and Technologists, backed by new generation, state-of-the-art equipments capable of delivering precise doses of radiation accurately to the tumor with minimum damage to normal tissues. The Department is one of the leading centers in the field of Brachytherapy in the country and is amongst very few offering this therapy for prostate cancer patients. It was the first center in Karnataka to startIntensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT), a special kind of treatment, which focuses radiation to the tumor area while pushing it away from the normal tissues,thus minimizing side effects. This Department also offers some unique therapies like fiducial marker based Image Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) and AdaptiveRadiation Therapy (ART) mainly for prostate cancer patients. Very few centers in this country currently offer these extremely accurate and targeted types of radiation therapy.
Manipal Comprehensive Cancer Center is recognized as one of the pioneering Center for Radio-Guided Surgery in the country. The Center has highly specialized and qualified team of Oncosurgeons who believe in optimum tumor control with maximum preservation of tissues and its function, thereby boosting the confidence and improving the quality of life.
Multi-disciplinary Tumor Board Meetings are held regularly where in difficult cases arediscussed among all the Oncologists and other related Specialists to arrive at the best possible treatment options for the patient.
KEY PROCEDURES AND TREATMENTS
The patient came with aplastic anemia which is a type of bone marrow failure syndrome. The patient body fails to produce blood cells and regular blood transfusions are required. This is also called
After diagnosis the only cure for this was found to be a bone marrow transplant(BMT) similar to the treatment for blood cancers. In this case the BMT procedure was very unique because the patient mother was the donor and was half matched. 4 months post BME the patient is doing well and has not required any transfusions. Regular follow-up checks will be required at least for a year and she is potentially sured from this genetic disease.